SMUGGLING OF CULTURAL PROPERTY AS A THREAT TO THE INTELLECTUAL SAFETY OF THE SOCIETY: CRIMINAL LAW AND ITS CHALLENGES

  • Aldis ČEVERS
  • Toms ČEVERS
Keywords: intellectual safety, cultural objects, Customs, smuggling, criminal liability

Abstract

   The purpose of the article is to underpin the negative effect of smuggling of cultural
objects on the intellectual safety of the society with regards to the illegal circulation and
denied accessibility of cultural objects to the cultural heritage. The article analyses a legally
correct circulation of cultural objects with accordance to legal framework of the Republic of
Latvia and the European Union as well as role of Customs within it. The article evaluates
preconditions of criminal liability for smuggling of cultural objects in accordance with the
Criminal Law of the Republic of Latvia. By comparatively analysing international, regional
and national laws and regulations, it is established, that applying of Articles 229 and 2291 of
the Criminal Law of the Republic of Latvia in practice will be problematic with regards to
difficulties in defining cultural objects as objects of criminal offence and defining the scope
of “illegal export” as the incriminated activity. For Latvia as a member state of the
European Union, the efforts of the European Union to promote protection of cultural
heritage will mean to review the passed amendments of the Criminal Law of the Republic of
Latvia, which have not yet come into force, in order to effectively address the illegal
circulation of cultural objects.
   The theoretical criminal law issues assessed in this article have been determined
applying an inductive research method, deriving them from individual cases of application
of the law. The theoretical sources have been selected and theses have been grounded
applying comparative research method. The conclusions have been made and the terms used
in this article have been systematized applying logical research method.

Author Biographies

Aldis ČEVERS

Riga Technical University

Toms ČEVERS

Rîga City Vidzeme Suburb Prosecution Office

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Published
2017-12-31
How to Cite
ČEVERS, A., & ČEVERS, T. (2017). SMUGGLING OF CULTURAL PROPERTY AS A THREAT TO THE INTELLECTUAL SAFETY OF THE SOCIETY: CRIMINAL LAW AND ITS CHALLENGES. Customs Scientific Journal CUSTOMS, 7(2), 6-16(engl.); 82. Retrieved from https://ccjournals.eu/ojs/index.php/customs/article/view/751
Section
DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY